Opening Hours: 8.30am to 2.30pm (daily)
6.30 pm – 10.30 pm(on Mon, Wed, Fri & Sun)
Telephone Number:+65 9662 5512

[ Full Service Menu ]

General Services

  • Acute illnesses ( coughs, colds, food poisoning etc. )
  • Chronic illnesses ( high cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes etc )
  • Wounds ( dressing, stitching )
  • Removal of fish bone / foreign bodies
  • Ear syringing

Health Screening / Check ups

  • executive health screening
  • pre-marital screening
  • pre-natal screening & others
  • domestic helper ( maid )
  • employment pass
  • long term visit pass
  • OBS check
  • Pre-Polytechnic check

Men’s Health

  • premature ejaculation
  • erectile dysfunction
  • ageing male syndrome
  • testosterone replacement
  • urinary infections
  • prostate enlargement / prostatitis
  • male pattern hair loss

Child & Adolescent

  • child vaccines
    • MMR ( measles/mumps/rubella )
    • DPT (diptheria/pertussis/tetanus)
    • poliomyelitis
    • H. influenzae type B
    • hepatitis B
    • rotavirus
    • chicken pox
    • pneumoccocus
  • allergic ( atopic ) conditions
    • asthma & chronic cough
    • eczema
    • allergic rhinitis
  • appetite & nutrition advice
  • acne & oily skin

STD & HIV

Women’s Health

  • emergency contraception
  • pregnancy testing
  • PAP smear / Thin Prep
  • menopause & menstrual irregularities
  • Cervical Cancer vaccine
  • skin care & rejuvenation
  • female hair loss
  • eyelash stimulation & lengthening

Travel Health & Preventive Med

  • travel vaccines
  • travel advice & medications
  • malaria prophylaxis
  • adult vaccines
    • pneumococcus
    • zoster
    • chicken pox
    • hepatitis A
    • hepatitis B
    • cervical cancer ( HPV )
    • influenza
    • tetanus
    • typhoid
    • meningococcal
    • Japanese encephalitis
    • pertussis (whooping cough)

Psychological Health

  • stress management / acute stress reaction
  • depression
  • anxiety disorders
  • mental resilience & conditioning

Additional Services


[ Health Screening Packages ]

Essential $98

 

Full blood count
ESR ( inflammation marker )
* Highly sensitive CRP
Diabetes screen ( fasting required from midnight )
Cholesterol panel ( fasting required from midnight )
Kidney screen
Urinary protein screening
Liver panel
Uric acid
 * Calcium & Phosphate levels
Urine microscopy ( No culture )

 

 

Essential Plus $138


Full blood count
* Blood group & typing
ESR ( inflammation marker )
Diabetes screen ( fasting required )
Cholesterol panel ( fasting required )
Kidney screen
Urinary protein screening
* Bicarbonate ( acid-base balance )
* Thyroid panel ( free T4 / TSH )
Liver panel
* Hepatitis A & B screen
Uric Acid
Urine microscopy
* Urine culture ( if microscopy is suspicious for infection )

 

Standard $228


Full blood count
Blood group & typing
ESR ( inflammation marker )
* Highly-sensitive CRP
Diabetes screen ( fasting required )
Cholesterol panel ( fasting required )
Kidney screen
Urinary protein screening
Bicarbonate ( acid-base balance )
Thyroid panel
Liver panel
* Hepatitis A, B and C markers
Uric acid
* Calcium & Phosphate levels
* Rheumatoid factor
* Syphilis ( VDRL )
* HIV
* Cancer markers ( AFP, CEA, PSA/Ca125, Ca 19.9 )
Urine microscopy
Urine culture ( if microscopy is suspicious for infection )
* Stool occult blood 

 

Comprehensive Male $328


Full blood count 
Blood group & typing 
* Reticulocytes 
ESR ( inflammation marker )
Highly-sensitive CRP 
* Iron studies
Diabetes screen ( fasting required )
Cholesterol panel ( fasting required )
Kidney screen
Urinary protein screening 
Liver panel
* Thyroid panel ( incl T3 )
* Total testosterone
Uric Acid
Calcium & Phosphate levels
Rheumatoid factor
Syphilis ( VDRL ) 
HIV serology
Hepatitis A, B and C markers
Cancer markers ( AFP, CEA, PSA, Ca19.9 )
* Helicobacter pylori serology
Urine microscopy
Urine culture ( if microscopy is suspicious for infection ) 
Stool occult blood

 

Comprehensive Female $ 338

 

Full blood count
Blood group & typing
* Reticulocytes
ESR ( inflammation marker )
Highly-sensitive CRP
* Iron studies
Diabetes screen ( fasting required )
Cholesterol panel ( fasting required )
Kidney screen incl Urine ACR
Liver panel
* Thyroid panel ( incl T3 )
Uric Acid
Calcium & Phosphate levels
Rheumatoid factor
Syphilis ( VDRL )
HIV serology
Hepatitis A, B and C markers
Cancer markers ( AFP, CEA, Ca125, Ca19.9 )
* Helicobacter pylori serology
Urine microscopy
Urine Culture ( if microscopy is suspicious for infection )
Stool occult blood
* Pap Smear using Thin Prep ( avoid doing test during the menstrual period )

 

All package prices include 1 review of test results.

 

 

Pre-marriage / Pre-natal Tests
Fertility screen ( male ) – FS02 + SA                           $200
  • Seminal analysis
  • Total testosterone
  • LH and FSH
  • Prolactin levels
 Fertility screen ( female ) – FS01 + QTP2                  $200

  • Free T4 / TSH
  • Progesterone levels
  • Estrogen levels
  • LH and FSH
  • Prolactin levels
  • HCG levels

 

Add-on tests

 

A large number of other tests are available for add on, including ECG, Chest X rays and other radiological investigations, PAP smears, HPV tests, HIV and STD tests, and a large number of other blood or urine tests. Some genetic tests may also be available.

Our health screening packages can be tailored to your needs and concerns. Feel free to discuss your screening or testing needs with our doctor during your appointment and we will try out best to assist. Call us at 6251 5512.

 

 


[ HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis / Prevention ]

Prevention of HIV

Unprotected sex, whether intentional or accidental due to condom breaks or slips, can be a source of great anxiety to patients and their partners. When there is unprotected sexual contact, it may be useful for the persons involved to consider the use of HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis to reduce the risk of catching HIV. 

 

HIV PEP / HIV Post-exposure Prophylaxis

HIV post-exposure prophylaxis refers to the use of anti-HIV medications to prevent or reduce the risk of getting infected with HIV after a risky encounter. While the actual risk of HIV infection varies depending on the type of exposure and likelihood of infection in the source, most guidelines on reducing HIV risk after exposure agree that the following situations may warrant consideration of using HIV PEP:

  • unprotected sex with known HIV infected persons
  • unprotected sex with high risk partners eg. commercial sex workers, IV drug users who practice needle-sharing, partners of known HIV infected persons.
  • condom slip / condom break / condom rupture / condom tear ( with high risk partners )
  • victims of rape or sexual assault

The usual time frame for use of HIV PEP is 72 hours. However, it is likely that the earlier the medications are started, the better the chances of preventing infection. Hence, patients are advised to contact us as soon as they are aware of the exposure. ( Tel: 6251 5512   SMS: 9662 5512 )

 

How  is PEP taken?

There are different types of medications which can be taken for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis ( PEP ). In general, medications are taken orally once or twice a day, for a duration of about 1 month. There is usually no need for any drastic diet or lifestyle changes while on the medications but should side effects occur, our doctor will advise you accordingly. Also, if you have any pre-existing medication conditions, or need to take any other medications while on PEP, do speak with our doctor.

 

What are the side effects?

Some of the common side effects include headaches, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting. More serious side effects are rare, but may include a drop in the red blood cells or inflammation in the kidney or liver. This explains the need for some basic pre- and post-medication blood tests. Remember to let our doctor know if  you have any pre-existing conditions in the kidney or liver.

 

Does taking PEP make me immune to HIV while I’m on it?

No. Unsafe sex and other risky behaviour while on PEP may allow more HIV into your body, increasing the chance that PEP will fail. We advise against taking further risks even when you are on PEP medication. 

 

So PEP may not always work?

That’s correct. PEP can fail if you happen to catch a resistant strain of HIV, or if it is not taken properly or soon enough. Our doctor will discuss your situation with you and work with you to decide if the risk of infection justifies the cost and potential side effects of PEP.  

 

What happens if PEP fails? Will i be worse off than if  I have not tried PEP?

No. Use of PEP, if taken according to guidelines, has not been shown to encourage resistant strains of HIV. However, if PEP has failed for you, you may already have a resistant strain of HIV to start with. Our doctor will discuss the subsequent options and follow up plans with you.

 

 


[ Condom Breaks ]

What to do when the condom tears / breaks / slips out:

1) Stop having sex immediately.

2) Remove condom and wash yourself with warm water. For ladies, if you suspect your partner has ejaculated inside you, DO NOT try to scrape the ejaculate out with your fingers or other objects as that risks injuring the vaginal walls and may increase the risk of infection. For the same reason, DO NOT use strong antiseptics and caustic soaps to wash the intimate areas.


3) There can be a risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Do come down to our clinic for a discussion on whether you may be suitable for Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV. In addition, screening tests for STDs may be required after an appropriate interval.

4) For ladies, if you are not on regular oral contraception, emergency contraception is also available and can be considered.
 
It is great that you use condoms. Even if you do not require contraception, condoms serve as an important pillar in the prevention of sexually transmissible infections. For other measures to reduce or prevent STDs or STIs, click here.
 
If you ( or your partner ) have experienced a condom break or slip, or have had unprotected sex, do give us a call or SMS at 9662 5512 immediately.
 
Condoms tear / break because:

  • poor quality or expired condoms
  • condom was not kept properly ( eg. left in the car in the sun )
  • damaged by nails or teeth when opening condom
  • insufficient lubrication – most condoms available in Singapore are pre-lubricated but if the receptive ( anal or vaginal ) partner is too dry, or if sex was prolonged, it may not be sufficient.
  • rough sex
  • inappropriate lubricant – always use water-based lubricants with condoms; oil-based ones such as massage oils can increase the risk of breaks.
  • 2 condoms were used simultaneously – double condoms actually increase the risk of breakage when the 2 condoms rub against each other.

 

Condoms slip out because:
  • rough sex or prolonged sex
  • penis was not fully erect when the condom was put on; or penis goes soft during sex
  • condom was not rolled down completely to the base of the penis
  • condom was too big – condoms smaller than the standard sized ones may be available at specialty shops

 

Treatments and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis are most effective when started early. For inquiries and an appointment with our dedicated doctors, please call or SMS 9662 5512.


[ HIV Symptoms ]

The commonest symptom in a person with HIV infection is – none. Most early symptoms only last for brief periods during the infection and may subside without specific treatments. The only way to be sure if you have HIV is to get a HIV test done. ( Depending on circumstances, you may also need STD tests. ) Do give us a call at 9662 5512 to find out more about HIV and STD tests.

 

Early symptoms

You may have read or heard about something called ‘acute retroviral syndrome’ ( ARS ) or‘seroconversion illness’ ( SCI ). These refers to a group of symptoms which a person may experience within a few weeks after HIV infection. Acute retroviral syndrome is the result of an inflammatory reaction in our immune system caused by movement of the virus into our bloodstream and beginning to reproduce in large numbers. This occurs in up to 40-90% of infected persons.

 

Common symptoms in ARS / SCI may include:

  • fever
  • bodyaches / headaches
  • fatigue
  • sore throat
  • swollen neck, armpit or groin glands
  • night sweats
  • rash

These symptoms may also be found in other viral infections. Thereafter, there may not be any symptoms for even many years.

 

Late symptoms of HIV generally appear after the immune system has been greatly affected and weakened. They usually indicate advanced infection and are therefore more serious. Late symptoms may again include :

  • fatigue or loss of energy
  • fever / night sweats
  • skin rash

 

In addition, patients may experience:

  • weight loss
  • nausea / vomiting / diarrhoea ( which can also be side effects of anti-HIV medications )
  • cough / breathlessness
  • nail changes
  • tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
  • increased frequency or severity of genital herpes / cold sores
  • increased frequency or severity of yeast / thrush / fungal infections
  • confusion, memory problems, poor coordination

 

Without treatment, HIV infected patients usually develop full blown AIDS ( acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ) in time. At this stage, patients are prone to developing lymphomas ( lymph node cancers ), cervical cancer and Kaposi sarcoma ( a form of skin cancer ). They are also prone to infections like tuberculosis and cytomegalovirus ( a type of herpes virus ). With AIDS, the survival time if no treatment is given has been estimated to be 2-3 years on average. 


[ HIV Tests ]

A full range of HIV tests are available. Depending on time from exposure, you may wish to consider the following :

Time from exposure

Available Tests

Remarks

0 – 10 days

Consider HIV PEP if exposure is high risk;Otherwise, consider testing based on timelines  below.

10 – 21 days

HIV PCR  Usually 7-10 working  days

21 – 28 days

HIV P24 Antigen / Antibody test ( also known as HIV Combo test / HIV Duo test )

  • HIV Combo lab test

 

  • SD Bioline p24 Ag/Ab Combo ( rapid ) test

 

From $120 ( incl GST )

 

usually 1-3 working  days

 

about 20 min

28 days

HIV P24 Antigen / Antibody test ( as above )

HIV  antibody  tests

  • ELISA-type antibody test
  • Oraquick ( saliva ) rapid test
  • DetermineTM ( fingerprick ) rapid test / SD Bioline HIV 1/2 rapid test
From $120

 

From $30  ( incl GST )

 

about 20 min

3 months and beyond

HIV antibody tests ( as above )

Most circumstances which may expose you to HIV may also expose you to other STIs. You may wish to consider testing for other STIs.

 

 

What is the risk of HIV?

 

This question may be one of the most common ones from patients coming for HIV counselling and testing. And yet this is probably one of the most difficult questions to answer. Do a search on the internet and you may find numerous websites, from official US CDC ( Centers for Disease Control & Prevention ) sites to Q&A websites, which give a range of figures pertaining to the risk of HIV transmission via various forms of sexual acts. Unfortunately, these figures may not always be the same. The reason for this includes :

  • Patients or subjects of research often engage in multiple different sex acts in each sexual encounter.
  • Patients or subjects of research may engage in multiple encounters ( either reported or unreported, involving different sex acts each time ) within a short period of time, in between getting their HIV tests done.
  • There is inherent difficulty in doing research and getting precise statistics in a discipline which is very private and often still carries significant stigma. Much of the information on number of partners and types of sex acts depend on subjects’ self-reporting.

To simplify the issue, we have categorised the various sexual and non-sexual exposures based on their approximate risk level. Bear in mind that there can be several factors which increase or decrease the risk, even within each category. Where figures are available and likely to be reliable, we have quoted the lowest and highest estimated risk from various sources but we believe that the risk category is likely to be more relevant for patients trying to understand their chances of infection.

Risk Category Type of Exposure ( assuming partner is HIV positive ) Remarks
Very high risk Blood transfusion of infected blood >90%
Needle sharing amongst IV drug users 0.67%
Receptive anal sex 0.4% – 3.38%
Moderate to high risk Receptive vaginal sex 0.08% to 0.19%
Insertive anal sex 0.06% – 0.62%
Insertive vaginal sex 0.03% – 0.1%
Low risk Receptive oral sex Extremely rare
Negligible / Theoretical risk( theoretically possible but extremely unlikely and no well-documented cases ) Insertive oral sex‘Rimming’ / Peri-anal licking

Sharing sex toys

Biting

Spitting

Throwing body fluids eg. semen/saliva

No documented cases; carries risk of other STIs if unprotected

Carries risk of other STIs

Carries risk of other STIs

Risk of wound infection

Factors which increase the risk Presence of a concomitant STIPresence of sores or wounds or ulcers

High viral load in partner

With ejaculation ( for receptive partner )

Factors which reduce the risk Anti-retroviral ( ARV ) treatment in affected partner 96% reduction(1)
Consistent and correct condom use 80% reduction(2)
Male circumcision 50-60% reduction ( in female-to-male transmission)

1 Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, et al; HPTN 052 Study Team. Prevention of HIV-1 Infection with early antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med 2011;365(6):493-505.

2 Weller SC, Davis-Beaty K. Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission (Review). The Cochrane Collaboration. Wiley and Sons, 2011.
Below: Oraquick HIV rapid test – positive test

xx

What do i do if the test turns out positve?

If the initial screening test is positive, a second blood sample will need to be sent for a confirmatory test called the Western Blot. This test typically takes about 2 weeks to be ready. No fasting or other special preparation is required.

The Western Blot may show:

  • Negative ( good news! But consider repeating antibody test in 3 months if there has been risk of exposure )
  • Indeterminate ( Consider repeating antibody test or P24 Combo test in 1 month if there has been risk of exposure )
  • Positive ( Our doctor will discuss the subsequent options for treatment and follow up with you )

HIV is certainly a serious infection, but options now exist for patients to have the infection suppressed and controlled. This can help reduce or delay the late complications of HIV infection and help protect your sexual contacts from HIV. Therefore it is crucial to take the first step and be tested.

Some additional information is provided below, together with links to the original site / source.

 

1)  From the US CDC ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ) website


Estimated Per-Act Probability of Acquiring HIV from an Infected Source, by Exposure Acta

Estimated Per-Act Probability of Acquiring HIV from an Infected Source, by Exposure Acta

Type of Exposure Risk per 10,000
Exposures
Parenteral
Blood Transfusion 9,000b
Needle-sharing during injection drug use 67c
Percutaneous (needle-stick) 30d
Sexual
Receptive anal intercourse 50e, f
Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse 10e, f, g
Insertive anal intercourse 6.5e, f
Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse 5e, f
Receptive oral intercourse lowe, i
Insertive oral intercourse lowe, i
Otherh
Biting negligiblej
Spitting negligible
Throwing body fluids (including semen or saliva) negligible
Sharing sex toys negligible

References

a Factors that increase the risk of HIV transmission include sexually transmitted infections, early and late-stage HIV infection, and a high level of HIV in the blood. Factors that reduce the risk of HIV transmission include condom use, male circumcision, and use of antiretrovirals.

b Donegan E, Stuart M, Niland JC, et al. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among recipients of antibody-positive blood donations. Ann Intern Med 1990;113(10):733-739.

c Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A model-based estimate of HIV infectivity via needle sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1992;5(11):1116-1118.

d Bell DM. Occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in healthcare workers: an overview. Am J Med 1997;102(5B):9-15.

e Varghese B, Maher JE, Peterman TA, Branson BM, Steketee RW. Reducing the risk of sexual HIV transmission: quantifying the per-act risk for HIV on the basis of choice of partner, sex act, and condom use. Sex Transm Dis 2002;29(1):38-43.

f European Study Group on Heterosexual Transmission of HIV. Comparison of female to male and male to female transmission of HIV in 563 stable couples. BMJ 1992;304(6830):809-813.

g Leynaert B, Downs AM, de Vincenzi I; European Study Group on Heterosexual Transmission of HIV. Heterosexual transmission of HIV: variability of infectivity throughout the course of infection. Am J Epidemiol 1998;148(1):88-96.

h HIV transmission through these exposure routes is technically possible but extremely unlikely and not well documented.

i HIV transmission through oral sex has been documented, but rare. Accurate estimates of risk are not available.

j Pretty LA, Anderson GS, Sweet DJ. Human bites and the risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1999;20(3):232-239.

 

2)  From the Canadian AIDS Treatment Information Exchange:

Risk of HIV Transmission From Different Types of Unprotected Sex
Number of Individual Studies Range of Estimates Meta-Analysis Estimate
Receptive anal

4

0.4%-3.38%

1.4%

Insertive anal

2

0.06%-0.62%

Receptive vaginal

10

0.018%-0.150%

0.08%

Insertive vaginal

3

0.03%-0.09%

0.04%

3)  From this UK-based patient information website, NAM ( National AIDS Manual ):

Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events

Activity Risk-per-exposure
Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries 0.04% (1:2380)
Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries 0.08% (1:1234)
Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries 0.38% (1:263)
Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries 0.30% (1:333)
Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic 0.07% (1:1428)
Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease 0.55% (1:180)
Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status 0.27% (1:370)
Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive 0.82% (1:123)
Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status 0.18% (1:555)
Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status 0.06% (1:1666)
Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status 0.04% (1:2500)
Receptive fellatio Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500)
Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy 0.8% (1:125)
Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 0.1% (1:1000)
Injecting drug use Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41)
Needlestick injury, no other risk factors 0.13% (1:769)
Blood transfusion with contaminated blood 92.5% (9:10)

Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5

References

  1. Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
  2. Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
  3. Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex.AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
  4. Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
  5. Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006

Keywords: HIV, HIV Test, HIV Test Singapore, HIV Testing Singapore, HIV Screening, HIV Singapore, HIV Clinic, HIV Clinic Singapore, Singapore HIV Test, Singapore HIV Testing, SG


[ STD / STI in Singapore ]

STD stands for sexually transmitted disease. STI stands for sexually transmissible infection.

Conceptually, there may be slight differences between the 2 terms but in most instances, the 2 terms can be used interchangeably. Both refer to infections which a patient catches from another through various forms of sexual contact, including oral, vaginal or anal sex. Sharing of sex toys does not carry a significant risk for HIV, but may constitute a risk for other STDs.

In Singapore, the more commonly encountered STIs include:

Bacteria

  • Gonorrhoea ( sometimes spelled ‘gonorrhea’ )
  • Chlamydia ( not all types of chlamydia are considered STIs )
  • NSU ( non-specific urethritis ), which may be caused by Mycoplasma hominis or Ureaplasma urealyticum, amongst others.
  • Syphilis / Venereal disease

Viruses

  • Herpes / Genital herpes
  • Genital warts ( caused by HPV, human papillomavirus )
  • Molluscum contagiosum
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • HIV

Parasites / Protozoa

  • Trichomonas
  • Pubic lice ( ‘Crabs’ )

Other conditions sometimes associated with sex or intimate contact ( but are not necessarily considered STDs ):

 

  • Oral Herpes / Cold Sores
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Candidiasis / Thrush
  • Bacterial vaginosis ( female )
  • Prostatitis ( male ) – inflammation or infection in the prostate
  • Epididymo-orchitis ( male ) – inflammation in the testes and male tubes
  • PID / pelvic inflammmatory disease ( female ) – inflammation in the Fallopian ( female ) tubes
  • Scabies

Some infections, such as HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and syphilis, may also be transmitted through non-sexual routes. These may include mother-to-child ( vertical ) transmission, occupational exposures from contact with blood ( eg. laboratory personnel, police or prison officers, healthcare workers ), infections in recipients of blood transfusions or organ transplants and infections amongst intravenous drug users who share needles.

 

So, how would I know if I have an STD or STI?

Symptoms of STDs, such as painful urination or discharge from the urethra or vagina, may alert you to the presence of infection. However, many patients with STDs do not have any symptoms. These carriers are still capable of passing the infection on to their partners.

Getting a screening test done will be a more reliable way to tell if you have been infected after sexual exposure. The list of available tests can be found here.

Of course, preventing yourself from getting an STD or STI is still the best plan. Here’s what we suggest.

What happens if I have an STD?

Majority of STDs can be treated. It is important to get treated early to reduce the chances of spreading the infection and to minimise the risk of complications and long term problems. A write up on available treatments can be found here.

 

 

 


[ STD Symptoms ]

Common symptoms which are caused by STDs may include:

For men
– discharge from the penis / urethra / anus
– pain when passing urine
– blisters or sores on the penis / pubic region / anus
– rash on the penis / pubic region
– itch or pain in the urethra
– aching, pain or swelling in the testicles
– blood in the semen / ejaculate
– growths or lumps around the penis / anus
– swellings at the groin

 

For women
– discharge from the vagina / urethra / anus.
– pain when passing urine
– blisters or sores on the vagina / pubic region / anus
– rash on the vagina / pubic region
– itch or pain in the urethra or vagina
– pain during sex
– bleeding during sex
– growths or lumps around the genitalia / anus
– swellings at the groin

 

Occasionally, symptoms which are non-specific, such as fever, tiredness, bodyaches, rash over the body, including the palms and soles or neck swellings, may be present. These symptoms may happen 1 or several weeks after the sexual encounter. 

 

However, we believe the most important message on this issue is that most STDs can be totally asymptomatic or symptom-less for a long period of time. 

 

STDs can be passed on to sexual partners even when they are not causing any symptoms. The consequences of sexually transmissible infections can include cancer, problems with fertility, prostate irritation and inflammation ( in men ), pelvic inflammatory disease ( in women ) and damage to other organs such as the liver, kidney, heart, spinal cord and brain.

 

This is why preventive strategies and going through screening tests ( with timely treatment of any infection detected ) are crucial in protecting your loved ones from infection.


[ Vaginal Discharge ]

Vaginal discharge may be caused by the following:
  • candida / vaginal thrush
  • chlamydia
  • gonorrhoea
  • trichomonas
  • bacterial vaginosis ( BV )
  • other infections

 

In addition to infection, urethral discharge can also be physiological ( normal response of our body to stimulation or hormonal changes ) or even the result of foreign bodies such as retained condoms.

 

Compared to normal ( physiological ) discharge, vaginal discharge due to infections are more often associated with other symptoms like itch, unusual odor, bleeding during sex or pain during urination. 

 

If you experience persistent or increased vaginal discharge, or if you suspect that you may have an infection , call us now at 9662 5512 for appointment.


[ Urethral Discharge ]

Urethral Discharge may be caused by the following:

  • chlamydia
  • gonorrhoea
  • trichomonas
  • non-specific urethritis ( eg. from Mycoplasma or Ureaplasma infection )
  • other infections
In addition to infection, urethral discharge can also be physiological ( normal response of our body to stimulation or hormonal changes ), caused by prostatitis ( prostate inflammation ) or seen under other circumstances.

 

If you suspect or believe you have urethral discharge, do make an appointment with us now at 9662 5512.


Consultations are private and discrete.
Same day appointments usually available.
Please call the clinic at (+65) 6251 5512 or SMS (+65) 9662 5512

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